Complete Rice Plant Until Rice Harvesting

Complete Rice Plant Until Rice Harvesting

In Asia, where the vast bulk of the world's production occurs, rice is one of the most widely consumed foods. At than 110 nations commercially grow rice. China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Vietnam are the top 5 producers. Nonetheless, India, Thailand, the United States, Pakistan, and Vietnam are the top 5 exporters of rice. In addition to Asia and the United States, rice is also successfully grown commercially in Central Europe, the Mediterranean region (Greece, Italy, Morocco), and South America (Uruguay, Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina) (Belgium, Netherlands).
Plant Information for Rice

The plant known as rice, Oryza sativa, is typically an annual Poaceae (Gramineae) monocot. To harvest the seeds (rice) for consumption, we cultivate the grass species Oryza. Rice is often a perennial plant. The rice plant can, however, grow as a perennial and live for ten or more years in extremely uncommon circumstances. Very early kinds of annual rice have a biological cycle (days from seedling to harvest) that is as short as 95 days and as long as over 250 days (very late varieties). 120–150 days after seeding, cultivars with a medium maturation can be harvested.

The rice plant comprises the root system, stem, leaves, and panicle. The plant's root system can range from 10 inches (25–30 cm) to more than 40 inches (100 cm). A common name for the rice seed is grain. Ripening panicles typically contain between 50 and 120 grains for every rice plant. The shell, bran coat, and endosperm, which house the embryo, are the three layers that make up the grain structure.

Comprehensive Guide on Raising Rice: From Sowing to Harvest

Today, more than 7000 different types of rice are grown. Generally, we need a lot of water and cheap labor (or mechanized production methods) to set up a prosperous commercial rice field.

Rice can be raised primarily in 3 ways:

Rice farming in lowland or paddy fields (most worldwide commercial rice cropland). In flooded areas, rice is farmed using either irrigation or rainwater. Water depth varies from 2 to 20 inches (5 to 50 cm).

Rice that is deep-sea and floats. Highly flooded land is used to grow rice. The water is more profound than 20 inches (50 cm) and maybe 200 inches (5 meters). Only a few types of rice can be produced in this manner.

Upland rice farming (a tiny percentage of world rice cropland). Rice is produced on not frequently flooded soil, and rain is crucial to the crop's success. These fields can only be irrigated by natural rainfall. In such a scenario, we must consider the requirement for a 3 to 4-month period of consistent rain, which is essential for the proper growth of the plants.

Generally speaking, water shields rice plants from harsh heat and cold. Weeds are also stopped from growing by the water.

Rice is a hardy plant that can grow in practically any soil type. It can grow in wet and dry fields if adequately irrigated (through irrigation or rainfall). But, because we anticipate a high production from our area, we must prepare the soil to accept either young rice plants (transplant method) or pre-germinated and incubated seeds (direct seeding method).

First and foremost, weeds and undesired debris must be removed from rice paddies. To achieve soil overturn, many rice producers plow and till the field. Furthermore, in some circumstances, a harrowing aids in breaking up a large lump of dirt, known as a clod. Laser land leveling is also popular among commercial rice farmers.

Bear in mind that each field is unique and has unique requirements. You are strongly advised to engage a local professional agronomic to develop a sound field preparation strategy.

Wet preparation and dry preparation are the two main methods of land preparation.

Preparing the Wet

For both upland and lowland fields, wet preparation is a possibility. This procedure necessitates vast water to prepare the area for future production. In soggy conditions, this approach adequately tills the soil. To prepare the rice paddy, we might examine the following steps.

Dike construction or maintenance is the first step. Dikes, in general, assist the land in retaining rainwater. We can construct dams measuring 1912 inches (5030 cm) around the field. Several rice growers say each channel is 1.1-1.9% (3-5 cm) tall. The goal is to ensure that water is available during rainy seasons.

Step 2: Irrigate the field. Many rice growers irrigate their fields for at least a week after constructing water canals. This aids in the smoothing, softening and plowing of the soil.

Tillage processes are the third step. After the soil has been thoroughly rinsed, we can execute tillage. When the soil is sufficiently moist, it is likely ready for plowing.

The fourth step is to flood the field. Rice farmers frequently flood their fields after plowing for around two weeks.

Step 5: Follow the secondary tillage techniques. This stage is usually done at least ten days following the initial tillage. It entails harrowing and field puddling. Rotavators and power tillers can be used for puddling. The soil turns murky. This approach is commonly used to preserve and make available soil nutrients. The rice paddy will then be harrowed 2-3 times over 5-7 days.

Step 6: Level the field. The final round of moist preparation occurs two days before planting. Tractors or animals can assist with this technique. A wooden board attached to them will traverse and level the field. The evenness of the soil surface is critical for crop growth.

Preparation of Dry Ingredients

Both lowland and upland areas can benefit from dry preparation. This type of preparation requires less water. To prepare the rice paddy, we might examine the following steps.

Dike construction is the first step. As previously said, dikes assist the field in retaining rainwater. We may construct barriers measuring 1912 inches (5030 cm) around the area. Each channel typically has a height of 1.1-1.9% (3-5 cm). The goal here is to ensure that water is available during rainy seasons.

Tillage processes are the second step. After the soil has been thoroughly rinsed, we may begin tillage.

Step 3: Follow the secondary tillage techniques. Farmers frequently use rototillers to plow and till the field.

Step 4: Level the field. We have a limited amount of water in the area during dry preparation. We typically do not need to use a wooden board to level it in this scenario. In this instance, laser land leveling is routinely used. A uniform soil surface is required for good crop growth.

Weed control is the fifth step. Allowing weeds to develop for at least two weeks is a standard method of preventing their growth. Farmers frequently use herbicides after they appear (always ask a licensed agronomist before using any crop protection product). We must be highly cautious of any potential herbicide consequences.

Rice Planting and Seeding Needs

Commercial farming of rice, like many other commercial crops, can begin with direct seeding or by nurturing the plants in nurseries and then transplanting them in a weed-free field. Each strategy has advantages and disadvantages. Direct broadcast seeding is a low-cost and quick strategy that causes more complications later. Plant transplanting is expensive, but it results in a weed-free plantation. Furthermore, using the transplanting process, the right and established spacing between the plants enable optimum crop aeration. It also guarantees that each plant has ample space to flourish.

Direct seeding: We need 220 to 350 lbs (100 - 160 kg) of seeds per hectare. We may need 485 to 550 lbs. (220-250 kg) of seeds per hectare for various types. Most sources have been germinated and nurtured for 1-2 days before direct seeding. We sow the seeds straightly, leaving a space of 6 to 10 inches (15-25 cm) between them. The water can fill our field immediately or 8-12 days after direct sowing is completed (ask a local certified professional Agronomist).

Transplant: Remember that we will require a seedbed that covers 2-10% of the field, where we will eventually transplant our rice plants. Our seedbed should be at least 0.2 hectares if our area is 10 hectares (100.000 square meters). We require approximately 1500 pounds (700 kg) of seeds per hectare of seedbed (this can range heavily depending on our variety). We seed in lines 2 to 4 inches apart (5-10 cm). We let the water fill the seedbed at a maximum depth of 2 inches after we completed sowing in it (5 cm). From 15 to 40 days, rice seedlings are kept in the nursery (depending on the biological cycle of the variety). When the rice plants reach 8 to 12 inches, they are usually ready to be transplanted (20-28 cm). We transplant them in the field in an 8-inch-by-8-inch (20-cm-by-20-cm) grid (8 inches distance between the plants in the row and 8 inches of space between every row).

Rice Crop Nutrient Management

Rice Fertilization Plan

Before using any fertilizer method, you must first assess the soil condition of your field through semiannual or annual soil testing. Each area is unique, and no one can advise you on fertilizing strategies without considering your soil's test results, tissue analysis, and crop history. But, we shall mention the most popular rice fertilization plans, which many farmers employ.

A typical rice fertilization strategy employed by many rice growers involves two major fertilizer applications: The first application occurs around the same time as planting or transplanting (or about 20 days later), and the second occurs 45-60 days following the first application. On the day of sowing/planting, many farmers apply 0.5 tons of N-P-K 30-10-10 per acre (or 20 days later). They use 0.2-0,3 tons of N-P-K 40-0-0 or 33-0-0 per acre 45-60 days after the first application. Remember that 1 ton equals 1000 kg = 2.200 lbs. and 1 hectare equals 2,47 acres = 10.000 square meters.

However, these prevalent patterns should only be followed by conducting your own investigation. Every field is unique and has unique requirements. Fertilizer application may or may not increase yields from your rice plants. Following a soil examination, you can seek guidance from a qualified agronomic.

Nitrogen is the most difficult nutrient to work with in rice production. Nitrogen is critical for increasing plant height, leaf size, panicle quantity, and yield per hectare. Nitrogen is required for rice to produce an adequate number of panicles. Many farmers administer N two weeks after transplanting or 21 days after sowing at this critical period.

Also, many farmers apply N before sowing and flooding the field. Nitrogen application may occur in dry soil, which will be promptly irrigated. We can combine it and flood the area in 3 to 5 days. An early use, in the form of ammonium, is also possible. It can be applied to dry soil shortly before floods. We should remember that if we apply early N, the field will be flooded within five days. Flooding often integrates N into the soil and protects it from loss. But keep in mind that each area is unique and has unique requirements.

Nitrogen scarcity

Nitrogen insufficiency is one of the most common difficulties in rice cultivation. It frequently occurs during critical growth stages (panicle development) when plants require more nitrogen.

An extreme yellowing of the crops can identify these deficits. We can control nitrogen deficits by taking the steps outlined below.

N fertilizer application that is effective.

Plant spacing must be enough.

Effective water management. Many farmers believe that their fields should be inundated regularly.

Weed control competes with rice for N (critical). Consultation with a local qualified agronomic is recommended.

Nitrogen Overabundance

Nitrogen administration in suitable quantities promotes rice growth and yields high-quality grains. Yet, many farmers apply more than is required for rice. Excess nitrogen utilization can result in lush growth, which invites many pests. Some farmers can detect nitrogen overload by inspecting the leaves. They are usually an unusual green color. Moreover, plants may have slender stems. Farmers may avoid nitrogen excess by evaluating the nitrogen consistency of the soil and then applying enough N to suit the needs of rice plants.

Phosphorus (P) (P)

Phosphorus is critical throughout the early stages of rice plant growth. It aids in the establishment of solid roots. P availability is heavily influenced by soil pH. Many rice producers believe that optimal phosphorus availability to rice occurs when soil pH falls below 6,5. (ask a certified professional Agronomist).

Potassium (K) (K)

Potassium (K) is also critical for achieving high rice yields. Potassium (K) aids in disease resistance, root expansion and thickness, leaf durability, and plant panicle initiation and development. Potassium deficiency has a significant impact on crop growth. Experienced rice growers suggest the following symptoms can help them identify these inadequacies.

Older leaves with dark markings. Plants with dark green leaves range from yellow to brown.

Lower-growing plant leaves may tend to bend downward.

The leaves in the upper part of the plant are short and dark green.

On panicles, there are necrotic patches.

Awful root condition. The roots are black and have a decreased density and length.

The leaves are wilting early.

Using the strategies outlined below, experienced rice farmers can tackle these issues.

It utilizes high-quality seeds that are pest and disease resistant.

Appropriate use of N and P while avoiding overuse.

It is critical to consult with a licensed specialist in your area.

However, these prevalent patterns should only be followed by conducting your own investigation. Every field is unique and has unique requirements. Fertilizer application may or may not increase yields from your rice plants. Following a soil examination, you can seek guidance from a qualified agronomic.

Pests and Diseases of Rice

Pests and diseases destroy more than one-third of rice crop productivity each year. Understanding our agricultural adversaries and developing an environmentally friendly strategy to combat them is critical. We can consult a local licensed professional to control rice pests and illnesses properly. The following are the most prevalent rice pests and diseases.


Planthoppers and Leafhoppers Planthoppers (Delphacidae) attack rice stem frequently. Leafhoppers (Cicadellidae), on the other hand, attack the plant's aerial components. The plants that have been assaulted have a dark brown coloration as if roasted.

Defoliators: Various insects (Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, and Coleoptera) feed on rice leaves.

Insects that damage grains, the rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax, attacks immature plants and feeds on their grain.


Bacterial blight is caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae. It can be found in temperate and tropical settings with high humidity. It is primarily responsible for the yellowing of leaves.

A bacterial leaf streak, Xanthomonas oryzae, is also responsible for this disease. It can be discovered in ill and wounded plants in high-humidity environments. It is in charge of the drying and browning of leaves.

Brown spot is a fungal disease that primarily affects the leaves and panicles. Huge brown patches start to appear on the leaves. It is one of the most severe rice diseases, commonly in areas with excessive humidity.

Prevention is the most effective method of controlling these pests and diseases. Rice farmers must consider the strategies listed below.

Between seasons, proper cleaning of rice paddies and equipment is required.

Certified seeds should be used.

They are avoiding excessive fertilizer application.

Pesticide treatment is frequently prohibited within 40 days following sowing (ask your local licensed agronomist).

Grain storage should be done correctly. Grain is frequently stored in containers with 13-14% moisture content.

Harvesting, Yield per Hectare, and Storage of Rice

Why is harvesting on time important?

Rice's biological cycle (days from seedling to harvest) ranges from 95 (highly early types) to over 250 days (very late varieties). Harvesting time for medium mature types is 120-150 days after sowing. When the grains turn yellow and get complicated, we know they are ready to be harvested.

Harvesting rice crops on time is critical for maximizing grain quality and yields. If we harvest early enough, the gathered grains will be mature, resulting in better milling recovery and easy breaking. Grain may fall from the panicle when crops are harvested late, resulting in significant losses. Generally, harvesting should begin only when grains are 80-85% mature or have a golden yellow tint.

Harvesting can be done both manually and mechanically. Workers use sharp knives to collect rice plants from rice paddies during manual harvesting. They then clean them thoroughly and segregate the damaged ones. Mechanical harvesting can be accomplished by employing machines that do all activities, including cutting, threshing, and cleaning.

Post-Harvest Care

Rice seeds are typically stored in silos and artificially dried after harvesting to reduce the seed moisture content to 13-14%.

Rice Drying Method

Drying is a crucial step in reducing grain moisture. Grain typically has about 25% moisture after harvest. Allowing them to do nothing may result in grain discoloration and pest infestations. In most cases, growers dry the grains before storing them. There are two methods for drying. Both traditional and mechanical approaches are used. In most situations, the grains must be dried within 24 hours of harvesting.

Drying Methods Traditionally

Traditional drying is favored and performed in many areas due to its low and nearly nil cost. By exposing rice grains to sunshine, we can dry them. Until the grains dry, workers can distribute them on rugs or sidewalks.

Drying by Mechanical Means

This method relies on hot air to remove water from grains. This is possible with several types of dryers.

The average price (seed) yield per hectare is 3 - 6 tons. In other countries, like Australia and Egypt, yields might reach 10 - 12 tons per acre. 1 ton equals 1000 kg = 2200 lbs., and 1 hectare equals 2,47 acres = 10.000 square meters. Of course, skilled farmers can achieve such high yields after years of effort.